From Life Extension there is a very good review article about the orgin of the Coronavirus and tratment options. They give recommendations for treatment and prevention. The full article can be found here @ Life Extension article.
Medications for Coronavirus
Here are some investigational uses of meds for treatments, which your risk of acquiring Covid-19 are small if you follow the avoidance recommendations.
“Because there are no proven medical treatments for COVID-19 or other human coronaviruses, scientists are looking to both old and new antiviral drugs in search of effective therapies. Some, but not all, laboratory, animal, and preliminary human trials exploring the use of established antiviral medications against human coronaviruses have reported positive findings. This includes antiviral drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C, such as ribavirin (Ribasphere), lopinavir-ritonavir (Kaletra), and interferon beta-1b (Betaseron) (Sheahan 2020; Chu 2004; Dyall 2017). The antimalarial drug chloroquine (Aralen) has shown broad-spectrum antiviral effects in preclinical and clinical research, indicating its potential role in combined-drug approaches to treating emerging coronavirus infections (Dyall 2017)[In East Texas Chloroquine is not available, Hydroxychloroquine is limited and can only be prescribed in 14 day supply. It has to be used with a dx of Coronavirus so not prophylaxis. Zithromax is used with it and is in short supply in East TX as well. It can only be given with a dx as well. If you are a patient of Landmark schedule an appt and Dr. Baber can call a Rx in for you]. Preliminary evidence from multi-center clinical trials conducted in China suggest chloroquine phosphate has clinical efficacy against COVID-19 (Gao 2020).”
“Remdesivir is another antiviral drug that has shown promise against SARS-CoV-2 in preliminary pre-clinical studies. It is a prodrug of an adenosine analog that has potent antiviral activity against many RNA virus families (Agostini 2018). A 2018 in vitro study showed that remdesivir was efficacious against two strains of human endemic coronavirus (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E) (Brown 2019). A drug screening study published on February 4th, 2020 showed remdesivir and chloroquine were both effective at inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro (Wang 2020). The Wall Street Journal published an article on January 31st indicating that the pharmaceutical company Gilead has entered into agreement with Chinese health authorities to conduct priority clinical trials to assess the efficacy of remdesivir in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (Walker 2020).”
On Feb. 25th, 2020, the U. S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced the commencement of the first clinical trial of remdesivir for COVID-19 in the United States. The trial is taking place at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. This trial will help establish whether remdesivir can offer robust clinical benefits for COVID-19 patients (NIH 2020).
ACE/ARBs may have beneficial effect, and should not be stopped if you are on them. There is a very complicated explanation for why this may be so, but basically it involves blocking the ACE2 internalization and the Angiotensin1-7 product from ACE2.
Integrative Approaches Coronavirus
There are many integrative therapies with well-established antiviral and immune-modulating properties. This is something you can do at home and follow the preventative measures at home. This virus is very much like a cold virus, but can cause problems in th elderly and those that have decreased immunity or lung conditions.
The interventions described in these protocols, though not necessarily validated as effective specifically for COVID-19, are nevertheless advisable upon onset of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.
For upper respiratory tract infections in general, including those caused by some types of coronaviruses, Life Extension has long recommended swift action to help bolster your immune response and mitigate the likelihood of a severe disease course. At the first signs of an upper respiratory tract infection (eg, sneezing, coughing, feeling unwell, mild fever), make an appointment with your doctor then take the following:
- Zinc Lozenges : Completely dissolve in mouth one lozenge containing 18.75 mg of zinc acetate every two waking hours. Do not exceed 8 lozenges daily, and do not use for more than three consecutive days.
- Garlic: Take 9,000‒18,000 mg of a high-allicin garlic supplement each day until symptoms subside. Take with food to minimize stomach irritation.
- Vitamin D: If you do not already maintain a blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D over 50 ng/mL, then take 50,000 IU of vitamin D the first day and continue for three more days and slowly reduce the dose to around 5,000 IU of vitamin D each day. If you already take around 5,000 IU of vitamin D every day, then you probably do not need to increase your intake.
- Cimetidine: Take 800‒1,200 mg a day in divided doses. Cimetidine is a heartburn drug that has potent immune enhancing properties. (It is sold in pharmacies over-the-counter.)
- Melatonin: 3‒50 mg at bedtime.
Do not delay implementing the above regimen. Once viruses that cause respiratory infections infect too many cells, they replicate out of control and strategies like zinc lozenges will not be effective. Treatment must be initiated as soon as symptoms manifest. Although this regimen has not been studied specifically in the context of COVID-19, there is little reason not to implement this strategy along with contacting a qualified healthcare provider as soon as possible after onset of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms.
Below are a few additional integrative interventions that have shown beneficial immune-enhancing effects in the context of viral upper respiratory tract infections.
- Vitamin C. Several studies have shown that vitamin C supplementation, both before and soon after the onset of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, may help ease symptom burden and reduce the duration of illness (Gorton 1999; Hemilä 1999; Ran 2018). However, the available evidence does not consistently support the notion that preventive vitamin C supplementation can reduce the risk of acquiring upper respiratory tract infections (Hemilä 2013; Virilhon 2019). Importantly, studies to date have not focused specifically on coronavirus infections but on upper respiratory tract infections in general such as those caused by rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, and influenza viruses.
As of March 4th, 2020, a study is slated to take place in Wuhan, China to test the effects of 24-gram intravenous vitamin C infusions on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome will assess ventilation-free days, and one of several secondary outcomes will be 28-day mortality (Peng 2020). Previously, a 2017 case report suggested that high-dose intravenous vitamin C may have contributed to the recovery of a 20-year-old patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to a viral respiratory tract infection (Fowler 2017).
- Lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in immune response and several other functions (Baveye 1999). It is found in secreted fluids and is abundant in milk (breast and cow). Lactoferrin has well-documented antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties (Malaczewska 2019; Wakabayashi 2014; Ishikawa 2013). It appears to exert antiviral effects by activating the antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β and boosting natural killer (NK) cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses (Wakabayashi 2014). Some studies suggest that lactoferrin administration may reduce the incidence and severity of common respiratory tract viral infections, like colds and flu (Vitetta 2013; Wakabayashi 2014).
In 2005, researchers reported that the gene encoding lactoferrin was highly upregulated in patients affected during the SARS epidemic that emerged in 2003, suggesting that it plays a role in the innate immune response to the infection (Reghunathan 2005). A follow-up study indicated that lactoferrin prevented the 2003 SARS coronavirus from entering host cells (Lang 2011). No data have been published as of March 10th, 2020 directly linking lactoferrin with outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
- Selenium. Selenium has important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities in the body, and deficiency is associated with increased risk of viral infection (Wrobel 2016). In patients with HIV infection, poor selenium status is correlated with increased mortality, and supplementation has been reported to slow progression of immune dysfunction and reduce hospital admissions (Wrobel 2016; Muzembo 2019). Some researchers have proposed that lack of selenium in regional soils may have contributed to the SARS outbreak in 2003 (Harthill 2011).
- Probiotics. A growing body of evidence shows probiotic supplements with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species can enhance antiviral immune activity and may reduce the occurrence, severity, and duration of viral respiratory tract infections such as influenza (Lenoir-Wijnkoop 2019; Mousa 2017).
- Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is a polyphenol from green tea. Because of its broad antiviral effects, EGCG has been proposed as a promising agent for preventing and treating viral infections such as SARS and MERS (Kaihatsu 2018; Hsu 2015).
Protective Measures Coronavirus
Below are some basic measures to consider in order to reduce your risk of contracting COVID-19 and other viral illnesses.
Avoid air travel to affected regions. Avoiding contact with infected individuals is the best way to protect yourself from COVID-19. Since most of the cases are occurring in China at this time, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a travel warning that recommends avoiding non-essential travel to China (CDC 2020c).
In addition, all air travel is associated with exposure to people and the infectious agents they carry. Outbreaks of infectious illnesses, including measles, influenza, SARS, and many others, aboard commercial flights have been documented (Mangili 2015; Hertzberg 2016). Therefore, avoiding air travel is a reasonable precaution for reducing your risk of viral infections in general, particularly if you have other vulnerabilities.
- Wash your hands. Frequent hand washing is an important strategy for protecting against all types of infectious diseases. Studies in office and healthcare settings have further demonstrated strategic use of alcohol-based surface disinfectants and hand sanitizers can reduce viral spread by 85–94% (Kurgat 2019; Reynolds 2019).
- Strengthen immunity. Optimal functioning of the immune system is vital for defending against all types of infections, from mild colds to dangerous influenza and life-threatening pneumonia. A nutrient-dense diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and stress management can all contribute to healthy immune function (Zapatera 2015).
- Disinfect surfaces. Coronaviruses can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass, or plastic for up to nine days. Fortunately, coronaviruses can be inactivated with proper cleaning and disinfecting agents. Therefore, keeping surfaces clean and properly disinfected is important to limit the spread of infectious diseases caused by coronaviruses. A study published on February 6th, 2020 found that coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces can be inactivated within one minute through disinfection with 62%‒71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite (eg, bleach) (Kampf 2020).
As of March 6th, 2020, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides a list of EPA-registered disinfectant products for use against the SARS-CoV-2 virus (EPA 2020). The list is available on the EPA’s web page, here: https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/list-n-disinfectants-use-against-sars-cov-2.
Social distancing. The CDC and other health authorities worldwide strongly advise that citizens—especially those at increased risk—living in communities experiencing community spread of COVID-19 “(remain) out of congregate settings, avoiding mass gatherings, and maintaining distance (approximately 6 feet or 2 meters) from others when possible” (CDC 2020e).
- Shoes Outside. In Hawaii we take our shoes off outside, and due to the nature of the Coronavirus falling with gravity, areas of high traffic will be bad areas to pick up the virus on your shoe. If you walk through sand this may clean to some extent, but there will still be virus that may have virus on the sides. So treat them as contaminated after you have been through stores, hospital ERs or areas with high foot traffic. Wash your hand after you take the shoes off!
Should You Wear A Facemask?
As of March 2nd, 2020, the CDC does not recommend that people who are well wear a facemask to reduce their chances of developing COVID-19. However, the Agency recommends that people who are sick or who have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 wear a facemask to reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others (CDC 2020d).
Facemasks are important in healthcare settings such as hospitals. One model of viral spread in a healthcare setting estimated facemasks could reduce flu (influenza) susceptibility by 3-10% (Blanco 2016).
Importantly, the U.S. Surgeon General has discouraged people who are not sick from stockpiling facemasks because doing so could limit the supply available in healthcare settings where the masks can make a meaningful difference (Howard 2020).
Article from The Wall Street Journal and Incubation Time
“Most people who catch Covid-19—the disease caused by the novel coronavirus—start showing symptoms roughly five days after infection,” according disease analysts at Johns Hopkins.
“Other researchers studying a smaller number of cases estimated Covid-19 has an incubation period as short as two days to as long as 14 days, with a few reported cases taking up to 27 days to develop.”
“In research published Monday online in the academic medical journal Annals of Internal Medicine, the scientists calculated that the median incubation period of the virus is 5.1 days. All told, about 97.5% of those who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days of exposure, the scientists said.”
Even so, they cautioned that, as a matter of statistical probability, the 14-day monitoring and quarantine period likely would miss some cases. By their calculations, they estimated that for every 10,000 people quarantined for 14 days, slightly more than 100 or so would develop symptoms only after being released from isolation.
As of Monday, the Covid-19 disease had spread to more than 100 countries and territories, with more than 113,000 confirmed cases and millions of people under quarantine in Italy and elsewhere. But the Johns Hopkins researchers focused only on confirmed cases of Sars-CoV-2 infection reported between Jan. 4 and Feb. 24 outside of Hubei province in China.
Generally, the researchers’ estimate of a 5.1-day incubation period for the novel coronavirus is in line with the known behavior of two closely related coronaviruses—Sars-CoV and Mers-CoV—that have caused infectious disease outbreaks in recent years. Other coronaviruses responsible for the common cold typically have an incubation period of about three days, the scientists said.